SYLLABUS - IV B.D.S.
Definition & Scope, Oral hygiene in relation to conservative dentistry. Instruments - nomenclature, design and formulae, care and sterilisation, Examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, Charting and recording of cases, cavities classification and nomenclature, Choice of filling materials. Principles of cavity preparation, Control of pain, prevention of damages to hard and soft tissues during Operative procedures. Methods employed for exclusion of saliva. Bio Mechanics of cavity design and restoration with filling materials, Pulp and soft tissue protection. Airotors and high speed equipment. Cavity preparation for various types of restorations including inlays and onlays. Restorative procedures, Matrices, Drugs used in the conservative Dentistry Fractured teeth and their treatment Sensitive dentine, its treatment, Ceramics in conservative Dentistry.
Rationale of endodontic therapy, Diagnostic aids in Endodontics Care and sterilisation of instrument for endodonic treatment of Vital and non-vital pulp, Tests for sterility of the root canal. Drugs used in root canal therapy. Bleaching of teeth. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Surgical treatment in endodontics.
Lectures ... 70 Hours
Clinicals ... 240 Hours
2.ORTHODONTICS & DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPAEDICS
1. Definitions, aims, objects and scope of Orthodontics
2. Growth and Development of jaws, teeth, face and skull and establishment of normal occlusion
3. Genetics as applied to Orthodontics
4. Normal occlusion and its characteristic factors responsible for establishment and maintenance of normal occlusion
5. Malocclusion - types & Different classifications,
6. Aetiology of malocclusion
7. History taking and examination of patient and case analysis and differential diagnosis including cephalometrics and treatment planning
8. (a) Preventive and interceptive treatment of malocculsion, (b) Extraction
9. Appliances, used in orthodontic treatment - Adequte knowledge of
(a) removable appliances, (b) Mechanical appliance,
(c) functional appliances
10. Tissue changes incident to Orthodontic treatment
11. Materials used in Orthodontics
12. Habit breaking appliances
13. Computers in orthodontics
14. Sterilization in orthodontics
15. Fixed functional appliances
16. Surgical orthodontics
17. Failures in orthodonic therapy
18. An outline of fixed appliance.
Lecture .... 40 Hours
Practical & Clinical ... 240 Hours
The teaching of Orthodontics clinic and Practicals should be arranged during III BDS and final B.D.S.
3.ORAL MEDICINE, ORAL DIAGNOSIS AND RADIOLOGY
Oral Medicine, Oral Diagnosis
1.Scope and importance of the subject, 2.Methods of diagnosis including special investigations, 3.Acute infections of Oral and para-oral structures, 4.Blood dyscrasias and their management, 5.Management of Cardiac patients in dentistry, 6.Metabolic and endocirne disturbances, their oral manifestations, 7.Nutritional deficiencies and their significance in dentistry, 8. Oral sepsis and its effect on general system, 9.Dysfunctions of Temperomandibular joints, 10.Cervico facial lymphadenopahy, 11.Diseases of salivary glands, 12.Facial pain, 13.Cysts and tumours of the oral cavity, 14.Oral manifestation of determatological and other systemic disturbances, 15. Special investigations, 16.Immune concepts of oral lesions, 17.Forensic odontology.
Lectures .... 25 hours
Clinicals .... 150 hours
1. Physics of radiation - production and properties of X-ray, 2.Principles of X-ray techniques and factors for Radiography and Fluoroscopy, 3.Technique of intra - oral and exta - oral Radiography and normal anatomical land marks, 4.Radiological interpretation of abnormal dental and jaw conditions, 5.Elements of Radiation treatments in oral, facial conditions and their sequelae including radioactive traces, 6.Sialography.
Lectures .... 15 hours
Clinicals ... 90 hours
1. Introduction to - Definition of Periodontology periodontics - Periodontia, Brief historical back ground, Scope of periodontics
2. Development Gingiva; Junctional epithelium in detail Microstructure, - Epithelial Mesenchymal Anatomy and interaction
Biology of - Periodontal ligament Periodontal - Cementum Tissues in detail - Alveolar bone
3. Defence - Role of Mechanisms in the - Epithelium oral cavity - Gingival fluid - Saliva and other defensive mechanisms in the oral environment
4. Age changes in - Age changes in teeth and periodontium periodontal structures Significance in Geriatric dentistry
5. Classification of - Need for classification, Scientific Periodontal basis of classification.diseases. - Classification of gingival and periodontal diseases as described in world workshop 1989.
Gingivitis: plaque associated, ANUG, Steroid hormone influence, Desquamative gingivitis, other forms of gingivitis as in nutritional deficiency, bacterial and viral infections etc.,
Periodontitis: Adult Periodontitis, Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis A & B, Juvenile Periodontitis (localized,
generalized and post juvenile), Pubertal periodontitis, Refractory Periodontitis. Localized and generalized gingivtis.
Papillary, marginal and diffused gingivitis, Etiology, pathogenesis,
Clinical signs, symptoms and management
1. Plaque - associated gingivitis
2. Systemically aggravated (sex hormones, drugs and Systemic diseases).
3. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
4. Desquamative gingivitis - Gingivitis associated with Lichen planus, pemphigoid, pemphigus and other
5. Allergic gingivtis
6. Infective gingivitis - Herpetic, bacterial and candidal, pericoronitis.
7. Gingival enlargement (classification and differential diagnosis).
7. Epidemiology of - Definition of index, incidence, Periodontal prevalance, epidemiology, diseases endemic, epidemic, pandemic - Classification of indices. (irreversible & reversible) Deficiencies of earlier indices used in Periodontics. Detailed understanding of Silness & Loe Plaque index, Loe and Silness gingival index, CPITN and CPI. Prevalence of periodontal diseases in India and other countries.
Public Health significance (All these topics are covered at length under community may be discussed briefly. However, questions may be asked from the topics in examination).
8. Extension of Mechanism of spread of inflammation from inflammation from gingival area to gingiva deeper periodontal structures. Factors that modify the spread
9. Pocket - Definition signs and symptoms, Classification. Pathogenesis and histopathology, Root surface changes and contents of the pocket.
10. Etiology - Dental Plaque (Bio-film) - Definition - Types, composition, formation; bacterial colonisation, growth and maturation, Disclosing agents. Role of dental plaque in periodontal diseases. Plaque micro-organisms in detail - Bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. Plaque retentive factors -Materia alba- Food debris
Calculus ; Definition,types, composition, attachment, theories of formation. Role of dental calculus in diseases. Food Impaction- Definition, types,etiology Hirschfelds classification, signs symptoms and sequelae Treatments.
Trauma from occlusion : Definition, Types, Histopathological changes, Role of trauma from occlusion in Periodontal diseases, Management, in brief.
Habits Their Periodontal significance- Bruxism and parafunctional habits, Tongue thrusting, mouth breathing, lip biting, occupational habits.
Iatrogenic factors: Conservative Dentistry restorations - Contact point, marginal ridge; surface roughness overhanging
restorations, interface between restoration and teeth.
Prosthodontics - Interrelationship - Bridges and other prosthesis pontics (Types), surface contour relationship of margins to the periodontium. (Theories) gingival muscle action theory, theory of access to oral hygiene
Orthodontics: - Interrelation - removable appliance, fixed appliances. - Retention of plaque, bacterial changes.
Systemic disease: Diabetes, Sex hormones, Nutrition (Vit, C & Proteins)- AIDS and Periodontium ,Hemorrhagic disease. Leukemia, Clotting factors disorder, Platelet disorder, PMN disorders
11. Risk Factors - Definition, risk factors for periodontal disease
12. Host Response - Mechanism of initiation and Progression of periodontal diseases. Basic concepts-cells-mast cells,
Neutrophils, macrophages, Lymphocytes, Immunoglobuilns, complements, Immune Mechanism and Cytokines in brief.
- Stages in gingivitis - initial, early established, advanced. Periodontal diseases activity continuous paradigm, random
burst and asynchronous multiple burst hypothesis.
13. Periodontitis - Etiology, Histopathology, Clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of adult periodontitis.
dontal abscess - Definition, Classification, Pathogenesis, ifferential diagnosis and treatment.
- Furcation involvement
Prognosis and management.
Rapidly progressive: Localized
- Post Juvenile periodontitis
- Periodontitis associated with
- Refractory periodontitis.
14. Diagnosis - Routine procedures, Methods of
probing - types of probes.
(According to case history)
- Halitosis, Etiology and treatment
Mention advanced diagnositc aids
and their role in brief.
15. Prognosis - Definition, types,purpose and factors
to be taken into consideration
16. Treatment plan - Factors to be considered
17. Periodontal Therapy - A. General principles of periodontal therapy phase I,II,III,IV therapy. Definition of periodontal regeneration, repair, new attachment reattachment.
- B. Plaque control
a) Mechanism - Tooth brushes, inter- dental cleaning aids, Dentrifices
b) Chemical - Classification and
mechanism of action of each, pocket
18. Pocket eradication - Scaling and Root Planing
Procedures - Indications
- Aims and Objectives
Healing following root planning
Hand instruments for scaling and sonic & piezoelectric & Ultra-sonic scalers.
- Curettage and present concepts
- Aims and Objectives
- Procedure and healing
- including crown lengthening procedure
- Indication and contraindication
- Armamentarium, Procedure and healing
- Flap - Surgery
- Definition of flap
- Types of flap
(Design of flap - Papillae Preservation) Pocket eradication, indications, armamentarium, surgical procedure and healing.
19. Osseous Surgery - Osseous defects in Periodontal disease
- Classification of osseous defect and surgery.
- Resective, additive osseous surgery (osseous grafts, Classification of grafts)
21. Inter disciplinary - Perio-Restorative Relations
Route of spread of infection
Simon’s classification and management.
22. Systemic effects of - Cardiovascular disease, low
periodontal disease birth weight babies etc.
1. Infection control
2. Periodontal instruments
3. Chair position and principles of instrumentation
4. Maintenance of instruments (Sharpening)
5. Ultrasonic, piezoelectric and sonic scaling demonstration of procedure.
6. Diagosis of periodontal disease and determination of prognosis
7. Radiographic interpretation and lab investigations.
8. Motivation of patients - oral hygiene instructions. Students should be able to record a detailed periodontal case history.
5. ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
1.Introduction, 2. Properties of an ideal local anaesthetic drug, 3. Properties of common local anaesthetic drug in use, 4. Choice of anaesthesia local or general, 5. Indications and contra indications, advantages and disadvantages of local anaesthesia, 6. Components of a standard local anaesthetic solution and the part played by each component, 7.How does local anaesthetics act, 8. Pre - anaesthetic medication, 9. Techinique of infiltration anaesthesia, Nerve block anaesthesia. Symptoms and signs of anaesthesia, 10. Complications associated with local anaesthesia and their management.
1.Properties of general anaesthetic drugs commonly used, 2. Pre – anaesthetic preparation of patient and premedication, 3. Evaluation of a patient for general anaesthesia, 4. Short anaesthesia in a Dental chair endotracheal anaesthesia, Intravenous anaesthesia, 5. Symptoms and signs of general anaesthesia, 6. Complications arising during the administration of general anaesthesia and their management, 7. Hypotensive anaesthesia.
1.Definition and scope, 2. Diagnosis in oral surgery (a) History taking. (b) Clinical examination. (c) Special investigation. 3.Importance of general condition of the patient in relation to oral surgery 4.Treatment planning. 5.Sterilisation, 6.Use of antibiotics in oral surgery. 7.Diagnosis, pre-operative assessment and treatment of impaced teeth. 8. Pre-prosthetic surgery. 9. Surgical aid to Orthodontics. 10.Oro-facial infections, their diagnosis and treatment. 11.Inflammatory diseases of jaw bone and their management 12.Diagnosis and management of Cysts of oral cavity. 13.Diagnosis and treatment of the fracture of the mandible. 14. General outline of the fracture of the middle third of the facial skeleton. 16.Diagnosis and treatment of benign neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity (odontogenic and non-odontogenic) 16. Surgical procedure in relation to endodontic therapy (Apicectomy). 17.Surgical treatment of tumour like lesions of the oral cavity including odontomes. 18.Diseases of maxillary sinus, with
special deference to oro-antral fistula. 19. Management of haemorrhage in oral surgery, 20.Disease of the salivary glands - Diagnosis and treatment. 21.Surgical aspects of histopathological diagnosis. 22.Diagnosis of malignant condition of oral cavity, a broad outline about the different methods of treatment. 23.Diseases of temperomandibular joint such as arthritis, hypoplasia,subluxation, 24.Afflication of trigeminal and facial nerves. 25.Implant surgery. 26. Maxillo facial imaging.
27.Cryosurgery, 28.Lasers, 29.General and local Anethesia -recent development. 30.Grafts(soft and hard tissue). 31.Basic principles of flaps and suturing technique. 32.Electro - cautery, 33.Management of Syncope, shcok, 34.Clinical manifestation and preventation of HIV, Hep A,B etc., 35. Orthognathic surgery. 36. Principles of incineration and disposal of medical disposables.
2. Indications for tooth extraction.
3. Pre-operative assessment.
4. Forceps extraction.
5. Surgical extraction (Trans-alveolar extraction)
6. Extraction technique under general anasethesia in the Dental chair.
7. Complications of tooth extraction and their management.
Anaesthesia (Local and general) .... 10
Exodontia .... 10
Oral Surgery .... 40
Clincial .... 320 hours
6. PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE
A. COMPLETE DENTURES:
1.Introduction & scope. 2.Applied Anatomy. 3.Examination, diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis. 4.Principles of retention and stability. 5.Principles and techniques of impression making. 6.Preparation of casts, trays and temporary denture bases occlusal rims 7.Jaw relations and methods of registration. 8.Artifical teeth, their selection and arrangements and esthetics. 9.Articulators and face bows 10.Occlusion and articulation in complete dentures. 11.Processing and finishing of dentures. 12.Corrections of occlusal discrepancies. 13.Insertion and adjustments of complete dentures. 14.Sequelae of ill fitting dentures. 15.Repair, rebasing and relining 16.immediate dentures, 17.Implant dentures.
B.REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES:
1. Introduction & scope.
3. Examination, diagnosis and treatment planning
4. Components of removable partial dentures & their function.
6. Mouth preparation for partial dentures.
7. Impression procedures.
8. Design of removable partial dentures & its associated problems
9. Fabrication of cast metal frame work.
10. Jaw relation record
11. Selection and arrangements of teeth
12. Acrylic partial denture
13. Try in of partial dentures.
14. Processing, finishing, insertion and maintenance of partial dentures
15. Immediate Partial dentures.
C.CROWN AND BRIDGE PROSTHODONTICS:
1. Introduction & Definition, 2.Indication and contra-indications. 3.Examniation, diagnosis and treatment planning, 4. Selection and choice of abutment teeth. 5.Principles of tooth reduction. 6.Indications, Contra indications, 7. Procedures of preparation of abutment teeth for receiving various types of retainers. 8.Temporary protection of prepared tooth. 9.Gingival retractions and impression procedures 10.Construction of dies and working casts. 11.Direct and indirect techniques. 12.Technique of fabrication of retainers 13.Selection and Fabrication of pontics. 14.Connectors, stress breakers and assembly of fixed bridges. 15.Finishing, 16.Cementation 17.Maintenance of crowns and bridges 18.Bridge failure Management
D. MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESIS:
Lectures - 80 hours
Clinicals - 360 hours
7. PEDODONTICS AND PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY
i. Introduction, definition, scope and importance of pedodontics.
ii Growth & development of Dental and Oral facial structures and normal occlusion-Developmental anomalies.
iii. Morphology of Dentitions and it’s application.
(a) Applied morphology and histology of deciduous and permanent teeth.
(b) Importance of first permanent molar.
iv. Fundamentals of Dental Health
Biological factors responsible for maintenance of Dental and Oral Health
v.Contributory local factors affecting oral health - plaque etc,
vi. Child psychology and management of child patient
vii. Examination, diagnosis and treatment planning
viii. Clinical pedodonics: Treatment of traumatized teeth, management of the primary and mixed dentition period Gingival disorders in children. Stomatological conditions in children. Mouth habits and their managements Set-up of Pedodontic clinic. Teething disorders. Developmental anomalies. Dental caries in children. Restorative dentistry. Pulp therapy and endodontics, space maintainers.
ix Importance of Oral Hygiene in children
x. Feeding problem in cleft palate
Lectures ... 40 hours
Practicals & Clinicals ... 240 hours
8.PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY (PAPER - VIII)
To prevent and control oral diseases and promote oral health through organized community efforts
At the conclusion of the course the student shall have a knowledge of the basis of public health, preventive dentistry, public health problems in India, Nutrition, Environment and their role in health, basics of dental statistics, epidemiological methods, National oral health policy with emphasis on oral health policy.
Skill and Attitude:
At the conclusion of the course the students shall have require at the skill of identifying health problems affecting the society, conducting health surveys, conducting health education classes and deciding health strategies- Students should develop a positive attitude towards the problems of the society and must take responsibilities in providing health. Communication abilities:
At the conclusions of the course the student should be able to communicate the needs of the community efficiently, inform the society of all the recent methodologies in preventing oral disease
1. Introduction to Dentistry: Definition of Dentistry, History of dentistry, Scope, aims aid objectives of Dentistry.
2. Public Health:
i. Health & Disease: - Concepts, Philosophy, Definition and Characteristics
ii. Public Health: Definition & Concepts, History of public health
iii. General Epidemiology: - Definition, objectives, methods
iv. Environmental Health: -Concepts, principles, protection, sources, purification environmental sanitation of water disposal of waste sanitation, then role in mass disorder
v. Health Education: Definition, concepts, principles, methods and health education aids
vi. Public Health Administration: - Priority, establishment, manpower, private practice management, hospital management.
vii. Ethics and Jurisprudence: Professional liabilities, negligence, malpractice, consents, evidence, contracts, and methods of identification in forensic dentistry
viii. Nutrition in oral diseases
ix. Behavioral science: Definition of sociology, anthropology and psychology and their in dental practice and community.
x. Health care delivery system: Center and state, oral health policy, primary health care, national programmes, health organizations.
DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH:
1. Definition and difference between community and clinical health.
2. Epidemiology of dental diseases-dental caries, periodontal diseases, malocclusion, dental fluorosis and oral cancer.
3. Survey procedures: Planning, ‘implementation and evaluation, WHO oral health survey methods 1997, indices for dental diseases.
4. Delivery of dental care: Dental auxiliaries, operational and non-operational, incremental and comprehensive health care, school dental health.
5. Payments of dental care: Methods of payments and. dental insurance, government plans
6. Preventive Dentistry- definition, Levels, role of individual, community and profession, fluorides in dentistry, plaque control programmes.
Research Methodology and Dental Statistics
1. Health Information: - Basic knowledge of Computers, MS Office, Window 2000, Statistical Programmes
2. Research Methodology: -Definition, types of research, designing a written protocol
3. Bio-Statistics: - Introduction, collection of data, presentation of data, Measures of Central tendency, measures of dispersion, Tests of significance, Sampling
4. sampling techniques-types, errors, bias, blind trails and calibration.
1. Place and locality
2. Premises & layout
3. Selection of equipments
4. Maintenance of records/accounts/audit.
??? Dentist Act 1948 with amendment.
??? Dental Council of India and State Dental Councils
??? Composition and responsibilities.
??? Indian Dental Association
??? Head Office, State, local and branches.
PRACTICALS/CLINICALS/FIELD PROGRAMME IN COMMUNITY DENTISTRY:
??? These exercises designed to help the student in W year students:
??? 1. Understand. the community aspects of dentistry
??? 2. To take up leadership role in solving community oral health programme Exercises:
??? Collection of statistical data (demographic) on population in India, morbidity and mortality, literacy, per capita income
??? Incidence and prevalence of common oral diseases like dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, fluorosis at national and international levels
??? Preparation of oral health education material posters, models, slides,, lectures, play acting skits etc.
??? Oral health status assessment of the community using indices and WHO basic oral health survey methods
??? Exploring and planning setting of private dental clinics in rural, semi urban and urban locations, availment of finances for dental practices-preparing project report.
??? Visit to primary health center-to acquaint with activities and primary health care delivery
??? Visit to water purification plant/public health laboratory! center for treatnlent of western and sewage water,
??? Visit to ‘schools-to, assess the oral health status of school children, emergency treatment and health education including possible preventive care at school (tooth brushing technique demonstration and oral rinse programme etc.)
??? Visit to institution for the care of handicapped, physically, mentally, or medically compromised patients
??? Preventive dentistry: in the 4epartment application of pit and fissure sealants, fluoride gel application procedure, A. R. T., Comprehensive health for 5 pta at least 2 patients
The colleges are encouraged to involve in the N.S.S. programme for college students for carrying out social work in rural areas
SUGGESTED DITERNSHIP PROGRAMME IN COMMUNITY DENTISTRY:
I. AT TEE COLLEGE:
Students are posted t the department to get training in dental practice management.
a. Total oral health care approach- in order to prepare the new graduates in their approach to diagnosis, treatment planning, cost of treatment, prevention of treatment on scb1ule, recall maintenance of records etc. at least, patients (both children and adults of all types posting for at least one month).
b. The practice of their si4e preventive dentistry including oral health education
II. AT THE COMMUNITY ORAL HEALTH CARE CENTRE (ADOPTED BY THE DENTAL COLLEGE IN RUR L AREAS)
Graduate posted for atleaset on month of familiarize in:
a. Survey methods, analysis and presentation of oral health assessment of school children and community independently using WHO basic oral health survey methods.
b. Participation in rural oral health education programmes
c. Stay in the village to understand the problems and life in rural areas
III. DESIRABLE: Learning use of computers-at least basic programme. - Examination Pattern
I. INDEX: CASE HISTORY
b) Oral hygiene indices simplified- Green and Vermilion
c) Silness and Loe index for Plaque
d) Loe and Silness index for gingival
f) DMF:T and S, df:t and s
g) Deans fluoride index
II. HEALTH EDUCATION
1. Make one - Audio visual aid
2. Make a health talk
III. PRACTICAL WORK
1. Pit and fissure sealant
2. Topical fluoride application
1. Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine by Park and park, 14th edition.
2. Community Dentistry by Dr. Soben Peter.
3. Introduction to Bio-statistics by B. K. Mahajan
4. Research methodology and Eio-statistics by
5. Introduction to Statistical Methods by Grewal
Lectures ..... 30 Hours
Community Programme ... 100 Hours
QUOTA FOR FINAL BDS
1. Operative and Conservative Dentistry
Class II - Silver amalgam - 12 cases
Class III, & Class IV - Glass Ionomer Cement - 5 cases
Class V - Glass Ionomer Cement - 5 cases
Jacket Crown - 2 cases
Anterior Root canal treatment - 3 cases
2. Prosthetics :
Complete Denture - 5 cases
Hand Scaling - 70 cases (along with III year)
Ultrasonic Scaling - 5 cases
Oral Hygiene Instructions - 10 cases.
Restoration of Teeth - 15 cases
Hand Scaling - 15 cases
Extraction - 40 cases
5. Orthodontia : 5 cases Discussion & 5 removable appliances
Demonstration of Fixed appliances.
6. Oral Surgery :