SYLLABUS FOR I YEAR - B.D.S.
ANATOMY - PAPER I
Introduction to Anatomy:
Terms used , Introduction to Osteology - Epiphyses- Ossification, Introduction to Joints - all types of joints. Muscles - types-action-terms used.
Nervous system - Central & Peripheral, Typical Spinal Nerve. Autonomic Nervous system,
Gametogenesis - The Genital systems of Male and Female; Fertilization - When & Where it occurs & its results, Ectopic & normal Implantation;
Development from Zygote to Chorionic vesicle; Formation of Notochord, Neural Tube, Neural Crest, Formation of the Trilaminar Germ Disc.
Foldings of the Embryo; Foetal Membranes - Fundamental idea
Development of Face, Nose, Lips, Oral cavity and Jaw
Development of Branchial arches, Pouches, Clefts & their derivatives. (tongue, tonsil, Thymus, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Ear Cavities)
Development of Cranium & Vertebrae; Development of the Tempero mandibular Joint
Development of Teeth, Development of the Salivary Glands, Development of Pituitary and Pharynx , Development of the Respiratory Tract
Development of Blood Vessels of the head & neck
Regional Dissection of Head & Neck- Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy, Vol.3 - latest edition is followed
A. Osteology: (i) Vertebrae in general,
(ii) Cervical Vertebrae in detail,
(iii) Skull-General architecture: Interior of Cranium, Exterior of Cranium, Norma Verticalis, Norma Frontalis, Norma Occipitalis, Norma Lateralis, Norma Basalis
(iv) Foetal Skull
(v) Individual skull Bones- Mandible, Sphenoid, Parietal, Frontal, Maxilla, Ethmoid, Vomer, Nasal,Zygomatic Temporal, Lacrimal, Occipital, Inferior Nasal Concha etc.,
B.Soft Parts : Scalp & Temple- Muscle, Vessels & Nerves
Face - Muscles Vessels & Nerves (including Extra - Cranial Course of VII Nerve)
Posterior Triangle - boundaries and contents (including Brachial plexus and third part of Subclavian Artery)
Back - Suboccipital Triangle boundaries and contents.
Anterior Triangle - Subdivisions - boundaries & contents of carotid, Digastric, Submental and Muscular Triangles.
Median Region of the front of the Neck- Cervical Fascia
Anterior Jugular Vein
Cranial Cavity- Duramater- layers -folds Dural Venous sinuses- Diploic veins
Meningeal Vessels, Emissary Veins.
Cranial Fossae and their contents.
Lobes of Brain
Lacrimal Apparatus and structure of Eyelid, Orbit- Muscles, Vessels, Nerves (II, III, IV, V, VI), Orbital Periosteum, Fascial sheath of Eyeball
Deep Dissection of Neck
Thymus, Thyroid and Parathyroid, Subclavian Artery I & II parts, Brachiocephalic Veins, Thoracic Duct, Scalene Muscles, Phrenic Nerve, Trachea , Oesophagus
Cranial Nerves - Intracranial course of VII, VIII, IX , X, XI, XII cranial nerves.
Common Carotid - its subdivisions, External carotid artery & its branches
Cervical Sympathetic Trunk, Cervical Plexus
Lymphatic drianage of head & neck
Pre- Vertebral region
Temporal and infratemporal regions including Muscles of mastication and Temperomandibular joint Submandidular region - Submandibular and Sublingual glands
Mouth & Pharynx: Roof & floor & Vestibule of the mouth, Muscles of Pharynx, Subdivisions of the cavity of Pharynx, Tonsil, Palate, Pharyngo-tympanic tube, Adenoids, Carotid, Canal, Tongue
Nose & Nasal Cavity: Apertures, Lateral Wall, Septum of Nose, Floor, Roof, Blood vessels - nerves , Paranasal Air sinuses
Larynx - Wall-muscles, ligaments, cartilages, Cavity - subdivisions, Vocal cord
Organs of hearing and equilibriation, External Ear, Middle Ear, Internal Ear
Spinal Cord: Coverings or Meninges , Contents of Vertebral canal, Gross Anatomy of spinal cord Regional differentiation, Blood supply, Main ascending and descending tracts and their functions.
Joints of the Neck
Brain - Meninges, Subarachnoid Cisterns, Blood supply of Brain, External surface of bass of brain, Hind brain - Medulla- External, Internal Features & cranial nerves attached, Pons - External and internal Features and Cranial nerves attached. Cerebellum - subdivisions & functions , Fourth Ventricle Mid Brain - External and Internal Features - Cranial nerves attached , Cerebrum - Main Sulci Gyri, White matter of cerebrum
Lateral Ventricle, 3rd Ventricle, Thalamus: Geniculate Bodies, Internal Capsule, Basal Ganglia
Upper Limb: Names of the bones & joints, Main Artery, Important, Muscles, nerves & veins
Thorax - Inlet - Outlet, Subdivisions - Lungs & Pleura, Heart, Pericardium & its blood vessels
Abdomen - Subdivisions - Location of the abdominal organs in relation to the abdominal wall, Their blood supply & nerve supply
Histology - Structure of Epithelium - different types - connective tissue - fibres & cells
Bone, Cartilage, Muscles, Blood Vessels , Lymphatic tissue - Lymph node, tonsil, spleen & thymus
Alimentary System - Salivary glands, Tooth, Oesophagus, Stomach, Intestines - small & large i.e., Duodenum, Ileum, Jejunum, Caecum, Appendix, Colon, Liver, Gall bladder , Pancreas
Reproductive System - Testis, Epididymis, Ductus Deferns, Prostate, Seminal Vesicle, Ovary, Oviduct, Uterus , Placenta, Mammary gland, umbilical Cord
Cornea, Retina - Cochlea
Skin - Thin skin, Thick skin
Respiratory system; Trachea, Lungs
Urinary system; Kidney , Ureter Urinary Bladder
Nervous system- Spinal Cord - different levels, Cerebrum, Cerebellum , Medulla -3 levels , Pons - 2 levels , Midbrain - 2 levels, Sensory Nerve endings , Motor nerve endings
Endocrines : Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Supra - renal gland
1. Demonstration of dissected specimens
2. Embryology models & charts
3. Embryology slides
4. Histology slides
Human Genetics Including Teratology
PHYSIOLOGY - PAPER II (Part A)
Introduction to Physiology , The cell as the living unit of the body , Body fluid and distribution , The extra celluar fluid - composition, Homeostasis, Transport through the cell membrane , Membrane potentials and Action Potentials , Histophysiology of Epithelium connective tissue , Fat, Cartilage & Bone Tissues
Blood: Blood Volume, Composition of Blood , Composition of Plasma, Red Blood Cells, Haemorrhage - Haemolysis, Blood groups OAB/RH systems, White Cells - Types of immunity - Complement system , Blood platelets, Mononuclear - Macrophageal system , coagulation of blood , Spleen
Cardio Vascular System : Basic Haemodynamic principles - Properties of Blood Vessels. The structure and properties of Cardiac muscle. Origin and conduction of heart beat , Cardiac cycle , Electro cardiogram - Leads used clinically Normal pattern and interpretation. Cardiac output Terminology, Normal values, Venous return, Distribution of Cardiac output, Factors determining and controlling cardiac output . Arterial blood pressure - Measurement of arterial blood pressure Normal values, Factors affecting and controlling arterial pressure. Radial Pulse. Heart rate and its regulation - Vasomotor centre, Nerves of the heart and their action. Capillary circulation system
Physiology of shock
Special circulation: Pulmonary, Cerebral, Coronary, Skin, Hepatic Splanchnic and Renal.
Respiration: Structure of the respiratory organs, Mechanics of respiration, Subdivisions of lung air , Diffusion of gases in lungs and tissues , Transport of respiratory gases in blood , Control of respiration , Physiological modification of respiration , Role of respiration of Acid base balance , Hypoxia , Artificial respiration
Excretory System: Structure of the nephron, Volume and composition of urine , Formation of urine - glomerular filtration - tubular Secretion and reabsorption, Renal function tests . Role of Kidney in Homeostasis of body fluid volume and composition. Micturition, Dialysis.
Endocrines: General chemistry of hormones, Thyroid gland , Parathyroid gland , Endocrine Pancreas, Adrenal glands, Pituitary gland - Hypothalamus, Pineal gland, Kidney , Thymus, Local Hormones : Prostaglandins, Kinins
Reproduction : Male reproductive system - Androgens , Spermatogenesis . Female reproductive system - Menstrual cycle, Pregnancy,Lactation, Contraception
Muscle and the Nervous system: Skeletal muscle structure and properties , Muscle contraction & relaxation. Smooth muscle: types, Structure properties .Structure and function of the nervous tissue Reflex action ,Sensory nervous system, Regulation of Posture, Cerebellum , Cerebral cortex, Voluntary movement, Basal Ganglia, Thalamus & Hypothalamus. Brainstem spinal cord, Limbic system, Electroencephalogram, Autonomic Nervous system C.S.F.
Digestion : Structure of the digestive tract - Salivary glands Saliva composition and functions ,Regulation of salivary secretion ,Digestion in the mouth , Digestion in the stomach , Exocrine functions of Pancreas, Digestion in the intestine , Absorption in the intestine , Movements of alimentary canal, Deglutition , Defaecation , Structure and functions of Liver
PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICALS AND DEMONSTRATIONS
1. Enumeration of Red Blood Cells
2. Enumeration of White Blood Cells
3. Differential Leucocyte Count
4. Determination of Haemoglobin
5. Determination of Blood Groups
6. Determination of bleeding time and clotting time
7. Clinical examination of chest
8. Determination of pulse and Blood Pressure
1. Properties of excitable tissues Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle
2. Activity of Frog’s heart effects of vagal stimulation and of atropine and adrenaline
3. Perfusion of Frog’s heart effects of sodium calcium and potassium ions.
BIOCHEMISTRY - PAPER II (Part B)
Acid Base Regulation: Acids and Bases, weak acid and strong acid, Dissociation constant of acids, — Actual acidity and Total acidity - Dissociation of water and the concept of pH scale - pKa of acids. Buffers and their mode of action. The Henderson - Hassel Balch equation — the buffer system in blood - Regulation of pH by respiratory and renal systems. Acidosis - Alkalosis. Metabolic and Respiratory.
Chemistry Of Proteins, Carbohydrates & Lipids: Proteins: Functional diversity — composition of proteins — the size of protein molecules — their building blocks - Protein Amino acids. Classification of Amino Acids - R- groups of Amino acids - Non polar, uncharged polar side chains, Acidic R - groups and basic R- groups — optical properties of Amino Acids - Acid Base properties of Amino Acids. Zwitter ion and isoelectric pH. D & L forms of Amino acids - optical activity - Keto Acids of common Amino acids - Primary amines derived from Amino acids.
Protein structure — the peptide bond - Primary structure - amino - terminal & C - terminal Amino acids the effect of amino acid substitution in the primary structure. Rudimentary knowledge of secondary, tertiary and Quartenary structure - Protein conformation - Globular proteins and fibrous proteins - Protein denaturation. Simple proteins and conjugated protein. Plasma proteins - Immunoglobulins.
Carbohydrate (Chemistry) : Classification and nomelclature — Aldoses and ketoses - Trioses, Tetroses, Pentoses, Hexoses and Heptose. Examples of biologically important compounds. Stereoisomerism - Epimers - D & L forms - optical activity - Ring form of sugars Mutarotation — configuration - Reducing property of sugars - Oxidation and reduction reactions - formation of uronic acid aldonic acids. Deoxy sugars - Polyols like sorbitol and mannitol - Biologically important disaccharides, Sucrose, Lactose and Maltose. Polysaccharides, Starch and Glycogen. Glycosidic linkage - Mucopolysaccharides or Glycosaminolgycans - Hyaluronic acid, Heparin, Chondroitin sulfate their chemical nature and - biological importance.
Lipids (Chemistry) : Criteria for Lipid - Classification - fatty acids. Short and long chain fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids - Palmitic acid and stearic acid - Monounsaturated fatty acid - Polyunsaturated fatty acid - Essential fatty acid, Fat or Triglycerides or Triacylglycerol - simple and mixed. Melting points. Phospholipids - Glycerophosphatides - amphiphatic properties. Sphingomyelins - Cerebrosides - their nature. Sterols - Cholesterol and related compounds - Bile acids, Androgens, Estrogens, Progesterone, Cortisol Aldosterone and Vitamin D.
Nucleic Acids: Elementary knowledge of DNA & RNA - Base composition. Nucleosides & Nucleotides. Basic structure of DNA - Different types of RNA Introduction to the biological triad. DNA - RNA - Protein. Genetic Code - Basic reactions leading to protein biosynthesis - Replication - Transcription - Translation - Antimetabolites and Antibiotics that inhibit protein biosynthesis. Metabolism Of Nucleic Acid: General outline of the synthesis and catabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines in man.
Vitamins: The vitamin concept, Chemical nature, dietary sources. Requirements (R.D.A), functions and deficiency manifestations of fat soluble and water soluble vitamins. Hypervitaminosis.
Enzymes: Definition, classification, specificity of enzymes catalysed reactions, coenzymes - mode of action of enzymes - Fischer’s Lock and Key theory and Koshlands induced Fit Model - factors affecting enzyme catalysed reaction - Michael’s - Menton equation - Enzymes inhibition - Competitive and allosteric - Isoenzyme - Enzyme of clinical importance.
Minerals: Bulk minerals and Trace minerals. Sources, functions, requirements absorption with reference to calcium. Phosphorus and Iron Biological function of minerals like sodium, potassium, magnesium, Iodine, copper zinc and fluoride.
Biological Oxidation or Tissue Respiration: The structural organization of Mitochondria - Power house of the cell- Hydrogen carrier or Electron transport system. Redox potential concept of free energy. High and low energy compounds - oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation ATP as the common currency of bioenergetics Inhibitors of oxidation and uncoupling of oxidative phosphrylation. Oxygenases and the microsonal cytochrome P-450 and the Mitochondrial P-450 monooxygenase systems.
Hemoglobin And Porphyrins: Importance of porphyrins - outline of the steps involved in the biosynthesis of Heme - Catabolism of Heme - The transport, circulation of bile pigments and excretion. Jaundice, Nature of Hemoglobin - Properties & functions - Common Hemoglobin Variants.
Nutrition: BMR - specific dynamic action. Caloric value of foods - computing caloric requirements Balanced diet - carbohydrate factor - fat in the diet. Protein nutrition. Essential Amino Acids. Nitrogen Balance - Quality of protein - Biological value of protein - Protein Malnutrition - Obesity - Vitamins & Minerals requirement.
Carbohydrate Metabolism: Chemical process involved in the digestion of dietary carbohydrates and their absorption Glucose as the major sugar in the body - Utilization of Glucose - Oxidation _ Glycolysis and Aerobic Oxidation in Citric Acid Cycle - Glycogenesis - Lipogenesis - their cellular and hormonal control - Cyclonic AMP Glycogenolysis and Neoglucogenesis. Role of Liver in carbohydrate metabolism. Regulation of blood sugar level. Glycosuria - Glucose tolerance test and it’s importance.
Lipid Metabolism: Digestion and absorption of dietary Lipids. Transport of lipids in serum. Lipoproteins Metabolism of adipose tissue - oxidation of fatty acids - formation and metabolism of ketone bodies - ketosis. Outline of fatty acid synthesis - Cholesterol metabolism. Absorption, transport, general outline of cholesterol synthesis its regulation. Excretion of cholesterol - Bile Acids - Compounds of biological importance that are formed from cholesterol - Vitamin D and steroid hormones. Serum Cholesterol and it’s relation to Atherosclerosis.
Protein Metabolism: Digestion of proteins and the absorption of Amino acids. Amino acid pool - Protein turn over. Removal of Nitrogen from Amino Acids Transamination - Role of Glutamate - Oxidative deamination by Glutamate dhydrogenase. Disposal of ammonia - urea cycle - importance of Glutamine - Catabolism of the carbon skeleton of Amino Acids - Glucogenic and Ketogenic amino acids. Catabolism of phenylatamine and Tyrosine to illustrate inborn error or metabolism. Formation of the following specialized products. 1. Thyroxine 2.Catecholamines, 3.Creatinine, 4.Histamine, 5. Serotonin, 6.GABA 7.Melanin Transmethylation and its biological importance.
Detoxication Reactions (Metabolism Of Xenobiotics)
Reactions of Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
Properties of haemoglobin, bile salts and bile pigments
Starch: Hydrolysis by acids
Blood sugar and urea, serum creatinine and total proteins - estimation
Milk analysis - Biochemical Mediators of Milk
Normal and abnormal urine: analysis
Lecture demonstration (to be recorded in the record note Book)
BMR, electrophoresis of plasma proteins
Chromatography - amino acids and sugars
Gastric, liver and renal function tests
Gastric analysis - total acids and free acids - clinical importance
HUMAN ORAL ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, HISTOLOGY & TOOTH MORPHOLOGY - PAPER III
i) Development and growth of face, teeth and jaws
ii) Development of enamel, dentine, cementum, pulp and periodontal membrane.
iii) Calcification of hard tissues of the teeth
iv) Microscopic anatomy of hard and soft tissues of the tooth and surrounding sturctures.
v) Microscopic anatomy of hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity such as lips, tongue, floor of the mouth, palate, salivary glands, alveolar bones etc.,
vi) Mastication and deglutition
vii) Age changes in teeth and surrounding structures.
viii) Shedding of the deciduous teeth
ix) Eruption of permanent teeth
x) Chronology of dentition
xi) Form and arrangement of teeth - occlusion.
xii) Functional anatomy of the oral cavity
xiii) Temperomandibular joint
xiv) Evolution of the jaws and teeth
xv) Chemical composition of teeth
xvi) Calcium, phosphorus and flouride metabolism
xvii) Effect of hormones on oral tissues
xviii) Influence of diet on oral structures
PRACTICAL: Carving of decidous and permanent teeth
Identification of the teeth
Microscopic appearance of normal oral soft & hard tissues
Preparation of Ground Sections of the teeth
Preparation of decalicified sections of hard tissues
Preparation of section of soft tissues
I. Tooth Morphology :
Carving of wax block for all upper & lower anterior teeth, Maxillary first premolar,first molar, mandibular second premolar & first and second molar.